Winona Wastewater Treatment Project

In 2002, Lombardo Associates, Inc. (LAI) was retained by the National Onsite Demonstration Project (NODP) to develop a preliminary engineering plan for the Winona, Fayette County, West Virginia wastewater treatment project area.

The goals of the project included:

  1. Preliminary Engineering of Alternative Solutions, including disposal site(s) identification and evaluation
  2. Development of Recommended Plan
  3. Develop Implementation Plan of the Recommended Plan, which would include proposed user charge system and management structure
Water Quality Issues

The West Virginia State Standard, Title 46-1, for maximum allowable level of fecal coliform content for Primary Contact Recreation (either (MPN of MF) states that it shall not exceed 200 colonies/100 ml as a monthly geometric mean based upon not less than 5 samples per month; nor to exceed 400 colonies/100 ml in more than 10% of all samples taken during a month. The US National Park Service monitors the quality of Kenney Creek by sampling just downstream of Winona. According to the US National Park Service data, Kenney Creek has the highest frequency of bacteria violations in the New River Watershed. Of 29 samples, 27 or 93% were in violation of bacterial standards. Primarily the┬ásmall community of Lookout, approximately 1.9 miles upstream of Winona, is the other major contributor to Kenney Creek. The WVDEP has rated Kenney Creek as the 4th largest relative contributor to New River fecal coliforms. The Plateau Action Network (PAN) has monitored Kenney Creek fecal coliform water quality and found violations approximately 98% of the time period 1991 – 2000.

According to the US National Park Service data, Kenney Creek has the highest frequency of bacteria violations in the New River Watershed. Of 29 samples, 27 or 93% were in violation of bacterial standards.

Proposed Alternative Solutions

The Winona Wastewater Treatment Project will involve construction of a new septic tank at each customer to provide primary treatment. The effluent will flow through a gravity, small diameter collection system to a flow equalization tank at the wastewater treatment plant. The treatment will involve an aerobic upflow filter, intermittent sand filter, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and riparian wetlands prior to discharge into Keeny Creek.

The project is estimated to cost approximately $3.6 million using current construction bid prices. If the WVDEP approves the Finding of No Significant Impacts, Final Engineering will start in July 2012. Following this timeline, public input meetings would start in late August 2012. The project is estimated to be shovel ready by July 2013.

Each individual septic tank will need to be pumped every 5-7 years. The District will include $7 per month in the monthly bill to have the funds to pump each individual septic tank from District funds. The average water usage in Winona is 2,450 gallons per month. The minimum bill will be for 3,000 gallons per month. The Public Service Commission will set the rates for the project based upon the information presented at the time the Certificate of Conveniences and Necessity filing. The District’s Accountant estimates the minimum bill will be $42.00/month.

The proposed rate will be:

First 3,000 gallons per month $14.00/ 1,000 gallons

All over 3,000 gallons per month $9.00/ 1,000 gallons

Tap Fee: $100 for customers applying for service before construction begins, after approval of the Certificate of Convenience and Necessity.

$3,000 or actual cost of septic tank installation after construction begins.

Collection System

Due to the natural contours of the Winona area, a septic tank effluent gravity (STEG) collection system will best serve the area both from economic and environmental standpoints. The limits of the collection system will begin at each developed property’s foundation wall to limit the issue of poor plumbing and house connections being a sour of infiltration and or inflow. In the propsed STEG system, new or repaired septic tanks would remain on the properties and the septic tank effluent would flow to the common sewer in the street. It is anticipated that a few, if any, of properties will require a pump (1/3 HP) to transport their septic tank effluent from their property to the common sewer. Pumping annual electrical cost would be very low – approximately $8-10. The street sewer will transport the effluent by gravity to the equalization tank and then to the treatment units.


A septic tank provides primary treatment. In a leach field, the upper portion is where the treatment occurs. As determined above, the treatment and dispersal system is proposed to consist of the processes present in Figure 5-2, which illustrates the entire collection, treatment and dispersal process. Treated effluent, as wastewater does currently, will flow to the Keeney Creek and into the New River.